-> Correction (straightening) of the nasal septum
It is performed under general anesthesia and aims to straighten the partition (the diaphragm) between the left and right airways of the nose. This improves airflow and the ability to breathe through the nose. The whole operation is performed endoscopically without incisions and does not cause any bruising or swelling externally.
Tonsillectomy is performed in a very delicate and careful way to minimize postoperative pain. Using low-power bipolar diathermy or coblation device, the operation is essentially bloodless. The operation is always performed under general anesthesia.
-> Adenoidectomy (meatballs)
The removal is almost bloodless with the method of suction diathermy adenoidectomy. There is no significant postoperative pain. General anesthesia is needed.
-> Installation of ventilation tubes in the drums (tubes)
With a brief general anesthesia in children or under local anesthesia (in adults) a tiny tube is applied to each eardrum. This treats severe cases of hearing loss due to fluid in the ears as well as cases of frequent severe acute otitis.
Its purpose is to improve the external shape (appearance) of the nose while maintaining or improving the ability to breathe. It is performed under general anesthesia and in collaboration with an experienced, trained and competent plastic surgeon.
-> Reduction of the lower nasal passages with radio frequencies
Aims at the internal widening of the nasal airways resulting in improved respiration. It is done under general or local anesthesia.
-> Endoscopic polypectomy and functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS)
Endoscopically (without incisions) and under general anesthesia, the polyps are removed from the nose to restore the ability to breathe. At the same time, the openings of the sinuses are enlarged in order to treat sinusitis (sinusitis, ethmoiditis, frontal sinusitis and sphenoiditis) which is the cause of the formation of polyps. This significantly reduces the chances of polyps re-forming.
-> Treatment of nosebleeds with bipolar diathermy
By applying thermal energy under local or general anesthesia, fragile or swollen arteries or veins that cause nosebleeds (nosebleeds) are treated. It is the best method for the vast majority of cases.
A hole is drilled (drilled) in the eardrum with an implant taken from the back of the ear with a small incision. The goal is to improve hearing and reduce the chance of infection (otitis). It is done under general or local anesthesia.
-> Microlaryngoscopy and removal / biopsy of laryngeal lesion
Using a powerful microscope and general anesthesia, the vocal cords are examined at high magnification to show any abnormalities in their shape and texture. Lesions such as polyps, cysts, etc., are carefully removed, using LASER or special micro-tools.
-> Endoscopic ligation of the wedge artery
A tiny metal clip is placed around one of the largest arteries in the back of the nose. It is done endoscopically (without incisions) under general anesthesia and aims to reduce blood flow inside the nose. This treats some rare severe cases of nosebleeds (nosebleeds).
-> Endoscopic biopsy of the nose and / or nasopharynx
With an endoscopic approach (without incisions), small samples (the size of a grain of rice) are taken from areas of the nose or upper part of the pharynx, under general or local anesthesia. These are sent to special laboratories to examine cells with special colors under a microscope. The method is recommended in rare cases where the diagnosis can not be made with the usual examination.
-> Reduction of a displaced fracture of the nasal bones
With special manipulations and under general or local anesthesia, the shape of the nose is restored when after a fracture (fracture) a deformity has been created. No incisions are made.
-> Nasal septal hematoma drainage
The blood that has accumulated under the membrane (mucosa) of the middle part of the nose is removed with a small internal incision under general or local anesthesia. This is necessary to do urgently in some cases of injuries, because otherwise the nose can collapse and become like a horse saddle (equestrian nose).
-> Posterior nasal cap
Under general anesthesia, special gauze is placed on the back of the nose to stop difficult (persistent, dangerous) cases of bleeding.
-> Wedge resection of the ear flap
A triangular area is removed from the rim of the fin and sewn in such a way as to maintain the shape of the ear. It is the best method to remove diseased areas from the fin without spoiling the normal convex shape of the fin. It is done under general or local anesthesia.
-> Rigid endoscopy of the larynx, pharynx or esophagus (direct scan)
Under general anesthesia, an examination is performed and lesions or foreign bodies are removed that cannot be treated with the usual method of flexible endoscopy.
-> Dilation of the esophagus
During rigid esophagoscopy (with general anesthesia) special methods are used to dilate narrow points of the esophagus to facilitate swallowing.
-> Drainage of parapharyngeal or periampical abscess
The operation is performed either under local anesthesia (painless) or under general anesthesia. Removing the infectious fluid prevents serious complications that could occur locally and in neighboring areas and facilitates a speedy recovery.
-> Excision of submandibular salivary gland
With general anesthesia and a small incision, the diseased gland is removed. The incision is made along the skin tension lines so that the postoperative scar is barely visible.
-> Cervical lymph node resection
Under general or local anesthesia, the enlarged gland is removed and sent to a pathology laboratory to determine the cause of the enlargement.
-> Thyrocystic resection (Sistrunk)
The cyst is removed with a small horizontal incision (under general anesthesia). At the same time, a small piece of bone is removed (a small bone that serves to connect the muscles of the neck), which minimizes the chances of recurrence.
Under general anesthesia, the tonsils, the grape and a small part of the palate are removed. In this way, severe snoring is treated in selected patients. There are many cases of snoring that are not suitable for surgical treatment and need different treatment (eg weight loss, use of CPAP mask, etc.).
-> Endoscopic pharyngeal diversion stapling
With general anesthesia, the partition between the diverticulum and the esophagus is cut so that food retention and difficulty in swallowing do not occur.
It is indicated when there is a progressive or abrupt blockage of breathing at the height of the pharynx or larynx so severe that it threatens the life itself. Local or general anesthesia creates an opening in the central airway of the body (trachea) in which a tube is placed that allows breathing and facilitates aspiration. Most often, when after days or weeks the disease that caused the initial difficulty in breathing is cured and the patient’s condition improves, an adhesive bandage is placed on the opening. Thus healing occurs and the anatomy and function of the breath returns to normal.
Proper medicine is based entirely on an accurate and complete history, the receipt of which is the first thing to do during the visit. The doctor will want to know all the details about the patient’s problem as well as some basic information about general health, medication, family history etc.
The organs of the ENT system are examined in detail.
The ears are examined under a microscope. If cleaning is needed, it is done with suction or special tools with high magnification and completely painless.
The nose, pharynx and larynx are examined with the endoscope with a special no touch technique. This endoscopy is the easiest endoscopy that exists since it is completely painless and does not cause a tendency to vomit.
The throat glands are examined visually and by palpation. The whole examination is done calmly, with a lot of attention and fine movements, without causing pain.
Whenever appropriate, measurements of hearing and function of the Eustachian tubes are performed, measurement of otoacoustic emissions, audiometry with provoked potentials of the brainstem, videostigmography, Dix – Hallpike test for benign postural vertigo, etc. neurological examination.
There are cases where several of these tests are needed as there are others in which none are needed.
Discussion – Explanation:
The doctor informs the patient about the findings and conclusions of the assessment and discusses with him the next step. This can be an additional examination (eg radiological examination), the application of a treatment (eg medication, surgery, therapeutic movements), the re-examination after a while or just reassurance, if no health problem has been found.
No difficult medical terms are used in the discussion. With understandable language and with the help of technological visual aids (images, videos, models) the patient seeks to understand his state of health. So he can be involved in making the right decisions, especially when there are more than one option to follow up. The doctor explains the advantages and disadvantages of each case and guides the patient in the right decisions.
Treatment sometimes requires surgery. Modern ENT surgery does not cause significant pain or discomfort, nor any significant blood loss. Often you do not even need to stay in the hospital. The basic principles include:
• The choice of method with the sole and absolute criterion of improving the patient’s health.